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General knowledge of drug safety

2023/5/19     Viewed:    
  1.What are microorganisms?

  Answer:Microorganisms are a group of tiny organisms that exist in nature and are small in size,simple in structure,and invisible to the naked eye.They can only be observed by magnifying them hundreds,thousands,or even tens of thousands of times with the help of optical or electron microscopes.Microorganisms include bacteria,actinomycetes,fungi,Rickettsia,chlamydia,mycoplasma,spirochetes,viruses,etc.

  2.What are bacteria?

  Answer:Bacteria are a large group of single cell prokaryotic microorganisms that can grow and reproduce independently in the external environment,with a diameter generally around 1 micrometer.Bacteria are sensitive to targeted antibacterial drugs.

  3.What is a virus?

  Answer:Viruses are extremely small non cellular microorganisms,with the vast majority being less than 150 nanometers,and smaller viruses can be less than 50 nanometers.It cannot be seen with an optical microscope,and most people need to magnify it to several thousand or tens of thousands of times with an electron microscope to see it.The virus has a simple structure and cannot survive independently in the external environment for a long time.It parasitizes within host cells and is not sensitive to antibiotics.4.What is a pathogen?

  Answer:Pathogenic microorganisms are called pathogens,including bacteria,viruses,chlamydia,mycoplasma,spirochetes,fungi,etc.Some microorganisms are not pathogenic under normal circumstances and are interdependent with the human body in the body,but can cause diseases under specific conditions(such as when the human immune function decreases),known as conditional pathogens.

  5.What is immunity?

  Answer:Immunity refers to the ability of the human immune system to resist pathogen infections.The immune system is composed of the thymus(which gradually atrophies and degenerates after puberty),spleen,and lymphatic tissue.When pathogens invade the human body,the first thing they initiate is a natural immune response,such as natural killer cells and monocytes and macrophages,which can attack and kill them.This immune response is non-specific and non-selective towards the virus.With the recognition of the human immune system to the virus,the immune response against the virus is initiated,namely the specific immune response,including the specific Humoral immunity response and the specific cellular immune response.The former produces specific immunoglobulins,while the latter mainly produces some killer T lymphocytes and cytokines to kill invading pathogens.

  6.What is a vaccine?

  A:Vaccine is a general term for various immune products.It is composed of specific bacteria,viruses,Rickettsia,spirochetes,mycoplasmas and other pathogens as well as parasites or their metabolites,also known as antigens.It is made by artificial detoxification or inactivation,and is mainly used for disease prevention,such as BCG vaccine vaccine.After vaccination,the human body produces specific immune substances-antibodies to resist the occurrence of infectious diseases.7.What is the role of BCG vaccine vaccine?

  A:BCG vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis.It is a mutant strain with weakened virulence and complete Antigenicity obtained after repeatedly passing the virulent bovine Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bile,glycerin and potato medium for 230 times over 13 years.This tuberculosis strain is not pathogenic to humans,but vaccination can provide immunity to tuberculosis.

  8.What are the types of antimicrobial drugs available?

  A:Antimicrobial drugs include antibiotics(including antibiotics,synthetic antibiotics,anti tuberculosis drugs and anti Leprosy drugs)and Antiviral drug.

  9.What are antibacterial drugs?

  Answer:Antibacterial drugs generally refer to the drugs with bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities,including various antibiotics,sulfonamides,imidazoles,nitroimidazoles,quinolones and other chemical synthetic drugs.

  10.What are the main categories of antibacterial drugs?

  Answer:It is mainly divided into eight categories,β-Lactam:including penicillins,Cephalosporin,Carbapenem,and enzymes containing inhibitorsβ-Lactam and monocyclic amide,etc;Aminoglycosides;Tetracyclines;Fluoroquinolones;Folate pathway inhibitors;Chloramphenicol;Glycopeptides:including Vancomycin and teicoplanin;Macrolide.The application of antibiotics should be selected reasonably according to different infectious diseases.

  11.What do antibiotics refer to?

  Answer:Antibiotics are called antibiotics,which refer to certain products obtained by culturing bacteria,actinomycetes,fungi and other microorganisms,or the same or similar substances produced by chemical hemisynthesis;It can also be chemically Total synthesis.Antibiotics have inhibitory and bactericidal effects on pathogens at a certain concentration.

  12.What is the concept of Antimicrobial spectrum?

  Answer:Each antibacterial drug has a certain antibacterial range,which is called Antimicrobial spectrum.Some antibacterial drugs only act on a single strain or a single genus,which is called narrow spectrum antibiotics.For example,Isoniazid is only effective against Mycobacterium.Other drugs have a wide range of antibacterial activities,called broad-spectrum antibiotics,such as fluoroquinolones and Chloramphenicol.They not only have antibacterial effects on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria,but also have inhibitory effects on chlamydia,mycoplasma pneumonia,Rickettsia,etc.The newly developed penicillin and Cephalosporin antibiotics are also broad-spectrum antibiotics.But they have no effect on chlamydia,mycoplasma pneumoniae,etc.

  13.What are Antiviral drug?

  Answer:A class of drugs that inhibit virus reproduction or kill viruses.

  14.What is drug resistance?

  Answer:Drug resistance,also known as drug resistance,generally refers to a state where the pathogen's response to drugs decreases.It is caused by the long-term use of antibacterial drugs,and when the dosage is insufficient,the pathogen produces enzymes that inactivate the drug,changes membrane permeability to block drug entry,changes target structure,or changes the original metabolic process.Individuals with severe drug resistance can cause multiple antibacterial drugs to fail.

  Why can bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics?

  Answer:In order to maintain their own metabolism and protect their living conditions from other microorganisms,natural microorganisms will produce some Secondary metabolite during their growth.These chemicals have the function of regulating their own metabolism and killing other microorganisms.They are an antibiotic produced by microorganisms.Since the discovery and development of antimicrobial drugs using antibiotics produced by microorganisms,humans have begun to intervene in the struggle between microorganisms.Bacteria also view antibacterial drugs made from humans as objects of resistance,and the evolutionary principle of choosing the best to the worst is to preserve and continue those bacteria,including substances that can inactivate antibacterial drugs,such as various inactivating enzymes,or changing their metabolic patterns so that antibacterial drugs cannot kill them,changing the target of antibiotic action,reducing absorption,and increasing excretion.This forms a bacterial antagonist

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